- cicatricial alopecia;
- Nerubtsovaya alopecia:
A. The diffuse form;
B. Androgenic and androgenic form;
C. Cavities form, patchy alopecia, alopecia areata, alopecia nest;
D. Seborrheic form.
There are lots of problems, which are “pouring on our heads” and that, among other things, – a disease of hair and scalp, which usually lead to partial or complete loss of hair.
But do not rush to premature to sound the alarm if you think that increased hair loss will inevitably lead to baldness. We want to reassure you! Since absolutely not in all cases should be equated with hair loss.
Increased hair loss can cause a huge number of factors: fatigue, depression, stress, improper care, hormonal disorders, perming, coloring and so on.
In some cases, hair loss can easily lead to the norm: a good rest, change the rhythm of life, regulate hormones, change-care products, take advantage of regenerative cosmetics and so on.
But if increased hair loss does not stop for a long time and in their place do not grow new hair – is to take certain measures. Here we are talking about alopecia (hair loss). In this case, any folk remedies or shampoos, unfortunately, will not help. Only necessary specialized care physician trichologist!
In this article we will examine various types and forms of alopecia, as well as their causes.
So, alopecia – is a persistent or temporary, complete or partial loss of hair, or lack thereof.
Alopecia (hair loss) may proceed with the scar formation with or without his presence.
Occurs after various injuries of the scalp, inflammation, as well as in certain types of diseases (Lesch flat, discoid lupus erythematosus) and is characterized by destruction of hair follicles and replacement by fibrous tissue (in appearance – it’s smooth and shiny skin of scalp). The presence of scar and cause of the disease is established by biopsy. Restoring the skin on the spot scar is difficult, but to stop the further spread of the disease possible.
To restore the aesthetics in addition to the use of therapeutic measures, as recommended for transplantatsiyu skin flap with the unmodified part of the head.
Nerubtsovaya alopecia (diffuse and androgenic androgenetic, alopecia, seborrheic and other forms)
When these forms of alopecia hair follicles are not atrophied, and theoretically can cause hair growth of these follicles, but unfortunately, this is not always made possible.
A. Diffuse form of alopecia (symptomatic)
Symptomatic in this form of baldness is called due to the fact that often the hair loss is a symptom of certain diseases and pathological conditions.
Diffuse alopecia is characterized by intense uniform loss of hair over the entire surface of the scalp in men and women as a result of violations of the hair cycle.
Distinguish telogenovuyu (resting phase of hair) and
anagenovuyu (phase of hair growth) form of diffuse alopecia:
Alopecia areata telogenovaya anagenovaya
Under the influence of the body which are not factors of hair follicles (80%) ahead of time go into the telogen phase (resting) and discontinue producing hair. Occurs when the exposure of the body (hair follicles), stronger and faster factors that result in hair follicles do not have time to “hide” in the resting phase, hair starts to fall directly from the growth phase (anagen).
• nervous stress;
• Hormonal disorders, eg, as a result of thyroid disease, pregnancy, admission of failed hormonal contraceptives;
• prolonged use of antibiotics, antipsychotics, antidepressants and many other drugs;
• surgical procedures, acute infectious and chronic diseases;
• diets lack essential elements for the body. • radioactivity;
• poisoning of strong poisons.
Most often diffuse (symptomatic) Alopecia is curable and stop the hair loss is possible, but the earlier the treatment to the specialist, the sooner you can identify the cause and stop the progression of alopecia.
B. Androgenetic alopecia and androgenic form
Androgenic alopecia develops in both women and men on the background of a significant increase in levels of androgens (male sex hormones) in peripheral blood without the presence of genetic predisposition and Androgenetic – on the contrary, ie is genetic in origin, in which the action of the gene occurs only under the influence of androgen hormones.
Both forms are thinning hair, leading to baldness in men parietal and frontal areas, women – to hair thinning in the central parting of the head with an extension to its lateral surface.
Develop these forms of baldness due to improve the sensitivity of cells of hair follicles to androgenic hormones. It is important to note that the contents of androgens (male sex hormones) in the blood usually is within normal limits.
The mechanism of the disease is as follows: under the action of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, found in the cells of the hair bulb and hair papilla, the male sex hormone testosterone is converted into a more active androgen hormone – a 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone. The latter enters the cell and a result of a series of biochemical reactions that violates the synthesis of proteins.
Due to the fact that in hair follicles was also discovered another enzyme – aromatase, transforming testosterone into estrogens (female hormones), and women with aromatase is several times greater than that of men – it became clear why women are not completely bald, male .
- If, however, explain the process easier, you need to remember the growth phase of hair:
1. Growth phase (anagen);
In this phase, the follicle is in active growth of hair. Normally, in this phase is simultaneously up to 85% of our hair follicles and it lasts for years.
- Dying phase (catagen);
In this phase, hair growth stops and the follicle for several months (about 3 months) of inactivity smoothly into the third phase – telogenu.
- Resting phase (telogen);
The duration of this phase is about 3 weeks, during which the hair “detached” from the follicle rises to the surface of the skin and then falls out.
Some people have observed the sensitivity of certain hair follicles to the action of male sex hormones. These “sensitive” follicles is not at all, but if there is such sensitivity, the molecules of sex hormones begin to reduce the anagen phase (growth) and to extend the phase telogen (resting). As a result of this process decreases the size of follicles and hair weakened, replaced by vellus and eventually drop out. Typically, the disease becomes noticeable only when the amount of hair is greatly reduced, due to their thinning. This mechanism is the same for both men and women.
In men, hair loss and thinning hair with this kind of alopecia may be due to several reasons: genetically sensitive receptor hair follicles to the amended hormones (androgens), an excess content of the male sex hormone – testosterone and increased activity of an enzyme that participates in the reaction of the conversion of testosterone to another hormone. Also, a situation exacerbated by other factors: stress, illness, medications, poor nutrition, bad ecology. Develop such forms of alopecia in men about as early as 20 years.
Women most often causes of such forms of alopecia are: pathological changes in the ovaries, adrenal glands, a marked decrease in the number of estrogens (female hormones) after giving birth, taking certain birth control pills, which contain substances that lead to increased levels of androgens in the blood. The development of such forms of alopecia in women occurs in 20 – 30 years.
Why, with these forms of alopecia on the head are always islands of hair in the occipital and temporal areas?
The whole point is that hair follicles in these areas do not have receptors are able to perceive the action of androgens and therefore the hair in these areas anatomically “immune” from falling out.
“According to conventional classification, both men and women differentiate androgenetic alopecia for male and female type.
When alopecia male pattern hair thinning observed triangular shape in the temporal region, and then in the forehead and neck. Further there is a diffuse hair thinning in the central-parietal region, and in its progression of hair are only a small area between the frontal and central-parietal region, with time and this site disappears. Perhaps the gradual development of total alopecia, but for women it is usually not observed.
Female type androgenetic alopecia is characterized by clinical manifestations. It is characterized by pockets of hair thinning in the central-parietal region, which has an oval shape. An important feature is the absence of alopecia at the temples and forehead. Grade I corresponds to mild, II degree – moderate, III – strongly expressed alopecia. It is believed that women’s development of II degree of hair loss indicates the presence of hyperandrogenism, usually due to changes in the ovaries; III degree is generally observed in pre-or postmenopausal women at a younger age – in the presence of pathology as the ovaries and adrenal glands. ”
With early treatment of androgenetic alopecia and the treatment of androgenic alopecia is possible, but this process is laborious and requires a long time.
C. Cavities form, patchy alopecia, alopecia areata
Breeding alopecia – is the name of one disease.
Hair loss in this type of alopecia occurs in small areas: “jacks” or “home”. However, such “pockets” or “nest” can be localized not only on the head, but also in other parts of the body (in the eyebrows, restnits, mustache and beard, pubic area).
The skin in the area of baldness, usually remains quite healthy-looking scars on it does not appear, only the color at the initial stage of the disease may change to a bright pink, and this process is accompanied by burning and itching.
When alopecia alopecia hair that grow on the edges of balding area of the head, are very thin, brittle and are easily pulled out. When considering such hair with its root under a microscope – you can see that they are refined at the base and resemble an exclamation point, and this is one of the main features of alopecia areata.
Patchy hair loss is divided into four types:
1. Local alopecia.
With this type of alopecia hair loss only in small areas, usually round or oval in shape – it is the most common form of female alopecia.
2. Subtotal alopecia.
This progression of the disease at which the loss of all the thick hair on the scalp, and saved only vellus hair is short and in the neck and sideburns. Hair loss is also observed in the outer zone of partial loss of eyebrows and eyelashes.
3. Total alopecia.
When extending the nests of alopecia areata foci coalesce with each other, and there is complete or almost complete loss of hair on his head and face.
4. Universal alopecia.
This loss of body hair, including vellus, which may be accompanied by a change in the nails in the form of thinning, increased fragility, the presence of longitudinal stripes and grooves on the surface in the form of a thimble.
Triggering factor for the beginning of the disease doctors trichologists feel stress, physical trauma and acute illness (the internal organs or infection), as well as genetic predisposition (the presence of children in the family with the illness – increases the probability of disease). As a result of these factors is reaction to hair follicles as well as foreign bodies and as a result – it starts to get rid of them.
Alopecia areata occurs at any age, regardless of sex, and very often alopecia alapetsiya observed in adolescents.
Basically, alopecia areata has a favorable prognosis (80 cases out of a hundred treatment of this type of alopecia is successful). But, unfortunately, less rosy prospects in patients who have experienced hair loss from an early age and suffering from frequent recurrences, as well as those with alopecia areata has passed the stage of total or universal.
D. Seborrheic alopecia, a form of
Seborrheic alopecia – Hair loss is caused by an increased sebum (seborrhea physiological), which bears a protracted nature.
Many patients physiological seborrhea disappear after 2-5 years and the amount of sebum is normal, but if the process does not come to normal, then a persistent seborrhea, which leads to hair loss (alopecia seborrheic).
When seborrheic alopecia is hypertrophy of the sebaceous glands and a qualitative change in allocated sebum, which breaks down fatty acid composition (as a consequence of changes in the function of the endocrine glands and autonomic nervous system).
In the mouths of hair follicles accumulate horny masses, there are degenerative changes in the inner and outer root sheaths, papillae and hair follicles, which leads to the impossibility of replacing lost hair with new ones. In connection with this, the incomplete recovery of hair, is disruptive to the physiological changes of hair.
Examination of the head shows marked desquamation (dandruff), the presence of scales grayish-yellow, greasy, easily separated by scraping, some of which are on hair.
With a thick oily seborrhea alopecia has a number of characteristics: hair falls out in smaller numbers than in the liquid oily seborrhea, they have long been no thinning, hair loss occurs throughout the hairy scalp, baldness develops resistant to 30-35 years.
When mixed oily hair loss is observed within the areas of inflammation, where there are purulent melting of hair follicles, which leads to hair loss.
Seborrheic alopecia equally often occurs in both men and women. Patients with seborrheic alopecia complain of itching, pain, discomfort and feeling of constriction in the area of the scalp and the establishment of the diagnosis in typical cases is not difficult.
This is a rare form of the disease, which manifests itself in conscious ejection own hair for mental disorders.
Usually the disorder occurs in childhood and adolescence (mostly girls), although perhaps delaying (women in menopause).
This type of alopecia is quite rare and the number of patients with this diagnosis does not exceed 6% of patients.
The clinical picture of the disease manifests itself in the inability to resist the cycle of prompting pull your own hair. Pathological behavior of patients, usually denied or concealed. Most often involved the temporo-parietal region of hair distribution and less typical areas: eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, body, underarms, pubic area.
Loss of hair looks like a relatively small focal areas of alopecia of various shapes (usually on the opposite side of the dominant hand), irregularly alternating with areas of hair intact. At diagnosis trichotillomania is often confused with alopecia areata, but for an experienced specialist is not too difficult to distinguish these two disease.
Therapy achieves tangible results, based on conversations with a psychoanalyst, as well as the powerful antidepressant drug treatment. Also very effective is the new drug Propecia.